A computer network is a single complex where computers, servers, and other equipment interact through communication channels. In our article, we will talk about varieties of computer networks and the principles of their formation.
The purpose of computer networks
Computer networks are PCs distributed in a territory and combined for joint use of resources (data, programs, and hardware components). The main goal of integrating computers into the network is to allow users to access various information resources (for example, documents, programs, databases, etc.) distributed on these computers and their common use. An important characteristic of any computer network is the breadth of the territory that it covers. The latitude of coverage will be determined by the mutual remoteness of computers that make up the network and, therefore, affects the technological solutions selected in the construction of the network.
Computer data transmission networks are the result of the information revolution and will be able to form the main means of communication in the future. The world’s tendency to unite computers into a network is due to several important reasons, such as acceleration of information messages, the possibility of quick exchange of information between users, receiving and transmitting messages (faxes, e-mail, electronic conferences, etc.), ns departure From the workplace, as well as the possibility of instantaneous receipt of any information from anywhere in the globe, the exchange of information between computers of different manufacturers working under other software, etc.
Types of computer networks
A single system that all computer networks satisfy. For the classification, specific characteristics are distinguished, which allows you to divide the networks into different types. The following parameters are distinguished as identification bases:
- the service area (size) of the network;
- data storage method;
- resource management method;
- a method for organizing a network;
- type of network devices used;
- type of data transmission medium used to connect devices.
The size of computer networks is the most important classification parameter since it determines the used network technologies. Consider the classification of networks based on this factor:
- A personal network (PAN) allows devices to exchange data over short distances. Pan combines devices such as mice, keyboards, printers, smartphones, tablets, etc. The most common connection technologies are Bluetooth.
- The local network (LAN) is a computer network that usually covers a small area located in one or more buildings. An example of a local network is a network of a small enterprise located in one or more buildings. The small size of local networks allows you to use quite expensive and high-quality technologies to build them, which provides a high speed of information exchange between computers.
- The metropolitan area network (MAN) uses highly effective routers and a connection on optical fiber to ensure a high data transfer rate between devices. The Wman wireless network provides special opportunities. Using WIMAX technology, television channels, radio stations, and Wi-Fi Hotspot points, everyone can connect to the city network or the Internet (visitors to cafes, coworking centers, etc.
- The global network (Wide Area Network, WAN) covers significant territories and connects local networks located in geographically remote areas. WAN belongs to specific companies. Providers rent them and connect them to the Internet of end users.
So, local networks have recently been given great attention to methods to ensure information protection from unauthorized access and global networks. Such engagement is because local networks have ceased to be isolated. They often have access to the “big world” through global connections. At the same time, the same methods are often used – data encryption, user authentication, and the construction of protective barriers that protect against penetration from outside.